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Jerusalem now recognized as the capital of Israel: How did we get here?

Brandon Moseley

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Monday, President Donald Trump has formally recognized Jerusalem as the capital of Israel by opening the new embassy there.

Congressman Gary Palmer, R-Hoover, said, “This opening makes the U.S. the first nation to recognize Jerusalem as the capital of Israel.”

Both Israel and the Palestinian Authority claim Jerusalem as their capital.

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In the Bible’s book of Joshua, the Gibeonite King of Jerusalem Adoni-Tzede made a separate peace with Joshua and the invading Hebrews. The other Canaanites decided to attack the city before its strategic position fell to Joshua and the Israelis. Joshua miraculously marched his whole force to intercept and defeat those Canaanite kings before they could take the city.

Centuries later a young King David took possession of the city, then controlled by the Jebusites, who called it Jebus, and made it his capital in 1010 B.C. renaming it Jerusalem. His son, King Solomon, would build the First Temple there and make the city the center of the orthodox Hebrew religion.

On March 16, 597 B.C. King Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon took the City. King Jehoiakim died during the siege. His 8-year-old son, King Jeconiah and most of the royal family were taken into exile in Babylon. His 21-year-old uncle, Zedekiah was installed as a puppet king by the Babylonians. In 586 B.C. the Babylonians again took the rebellious city after a two year siege. This time they destroyed it and the Temple of Solomon.

In 444 B.C. Nehemiah was appointed as the Governor of Judea by the Persian Empire. He repaired the city walls, repopulated the city and built a much smaller second temple. In 332 B.C. the city of Jerusalem fell to Alexander of Macedonia following the siege of Tyre.

In 168 B.C. the deposed High Priest Jason (Jesus) took the city after wrongly receiving the information that Seleucid King Antiochus IV Epiphanes had died on campaign in Egypt. Antiochus retook Jerusalem and responded with a massive persecution of orthodox Jews to speed the Hellenization process. This sparked a Jewish revolt in 167 B.C. under the Maccabees family (Hasmoneans) that eventually took control of the city, the temple, and eventually most of classic Israel including the Edomites who were forced to convert to Judaism.

In 67 B.C. the Roman Republic invaded to settle a Hasmonean civil war and partitioned the country. Julius Caesar and Marc Antony favored the Edomite Antipater and his son Herod. In 40 B.C. the Parthian Empire took Syria and the Hasmoneans took back Judea as a Parthian allied state. Herod fled to Rome who declared him the rightful King of Judea. With Roman help, Herod retook Jerusalem and the country in 37 BC. Herod launched a number of building projects including a massive rebuilding of the Second Temple as a much grander structure. After Herod’s death in 4 B.C. the country was divided among his four sons but the Roman Empire began to exercise much more direct control. In approximately 34 A.D. Jesus of Nazareth was executed by the Romans in Jerusalem at the urging of Jewish leaders.

In 66 A.D. the Roman Governor Gessius Florus plundered the temple and seized a number of Jewish leaders. The country rose in a massive revolt. In 70 A.D. the Roman General Titus took the city after a brutal seven month siege and took it and the temple. The surviving Pharisees then reorganized modern Judaism without the involvement of their rivals, the Sadducees, and the Essenes.

In 115 to 117 A.D. there was a second Jewish revolt. In 130 A.D. the Roman Emperor Hadrian visited the ruins and orders Jerusalem rebuilt, this time dedicated to the God Jupiter and renamed Aelia Capitolonia. In 132 A.D. Simon Bar Kokhba takes the city by force, expels the Romans, renames the city, and is declared the Messiah. In 136 A.D. the Romans retook Jerusalem and expelled all Jews and Christians, a temple to Jupiter is built on the Temple Mount and a temple to Venus is built on Calgary and the city was rededicated as Aelia Capitolonia.

Christians begin returning after Hadrian’s death. In 313 the Emperor Constantine legalizes Christianity. In 324 Constantine calls the Council of Nicaea and renames the City as Jerusalem. In 361 Julian the Apostate becomes Emperor and attempts to reverse the growing Christianization of the Empire. As part of that multicultural effort Julian allows Jews to return to the City and orders the Temple rebuilt. Work on the Temple ends with Julian’s death and a massive earthquake in 363. In 380 the Roman Empire is divided into East and West, Jerusalem is part of the Eastern or Byzantine Empire.

In 611 the Jews revolt and join forces with the growing Sassinid Empire in their War against the Byzantines. The Sassinids take Jerusalem in 614 killing most of the Christians and destroying most of the city.  The Jewish leader Nehemiah Ben Hosel was made governor. In 617 Christians revolted and killed Nehemiah. The Sassinids appointed a Christian Governor. In 629 the Byzantine Emperor Heraclius defeated the Sassinids and retook Jerusalem.

In 637 Caliph Umar the Great takes the city as Muslim armies emerge out of Arabia in force. In 750 the Umayads are defeated by the Abassids who take Jerusalem and assassinate the governor. In 878 Ahmd Ibn Tulun, the ruler of Egypt, takes Jerusalem. In 904 the Abassids retake the city. In 969 the Umali Shia Fatimids took Jerusalem.

In 975 the Byzantine Emperor John I Tzimiskes took Syria and much of the holy land, including Nazareth, but was defeated just outside of Jerusalem. In 1054 the Patriarch of Jerusalem joins with the Eastern Orthodox Church against the Pope in the Great Schism.

In 1073 the Seljuk Turks take Jerusalem from the Fatimids. In 1077 the city revolts against Seljuk rule. Emir Atsiv Ibd Ubaq then returns and retakes the city slaughtering many of the inhabitants. Amidst a Seljuk civil war the Fatimids retook Jerusalem in 1098. In 1099 the First Crusaders arrive and besiege Jerusalem. Many of the Muslim and Jewish inhabitants of the city are killed. Baldwin I is named the first King of Jerusalem.

In 1187 the Christian army was defeated by Saladin at the Battle of the Horns of Hattin. Saladin then besieges and takes Jerusalem. In 1192 the Third Crusade, led by English King Richard the Lionheart, fails to retake Jerusalem. In 1219 the Emir of Damascus destroyed the walls of Jerusalem to prevent the Crusaders from taking the City as a fortified town. From 1229 to 1244 the Christians controlled Jerusalem by treaty. In 1244 the city fell to Muslim control again after a siege. In 1250 the Seventh Crusade ends in failure with the Christians unsuccessful in their attempt to retake Jerusalem.

In 1260 Jerusalem was raided by the Mongols; but were ultimately defeated by the Egyptian Mamluks just to the north of the city. In 1267 Jerusalem only had two Jewish families still living there. In 1291 the Mamluks took the last independent Crusader state, Acre. In 1300 a joint Mongol and Armenian army took Jerusalem but withdrew after just a few months. In 1347 much of the population was killed by the Black Death.

In 1516 the Mamelukes were defeated by the Ottoman Turks who took all of Palestine. In 1771 to 1772 the Christian Mamluk rule of Egypt took Jerusalem with Russian help. He ultimately withdrew. In 1799 the French leader, Napoleon Bonaparte, was forced to end his effort to take Jerusalem after his defeat at the Seige of Acre.

In 1831 Wali Muhammed Ali of Egypt conquered the city. In 1834 the city revolted against Ali. In 1839 and 1840 Jewish Rabi Judah Alklai published books urging Jews to return to Palestine. In 1840 the Ottoman Turks retook Jerusalem with British help. Beginning in the 1860s, Jews from Holland and Germany began resettling in Jerusalem and Jewish neighborhoods began expanding.

In 1897 the First Zionist Congress discussed Jerusalem as a possible capital of a future Jewish state. In 1901 Ottoman authorities placed restrictions on Jewish immigration to Palestine. In 1914 World War I begins. The Ottoman Empire sides with Germany and Austria against France, Russia, Italy, Great Britain, and eventually the United States.

In 1917 British forces under Allenby defeated the Ottomans at the Battle of Jerusalem and entered the city. The Ottomans lost control of Palestine to Great Britain in the Treaty that ended World War I. The Holocaust decimated Jewish populations in Europe during World War II. Israeli nationalists and Arab nationalists increasingly were at odds over the future of Palestine.

On November 29, 1947 the United Nations partition plan called for making Jerusalem an international city separate from any state.  In 1948 the City was divided between Israel and the Kingdom of Jordan. On June 7, 1967 the Israeli Army took the old city of Jerusalem from the Jordanians. Israel eventually moved its capital from Tel Aviv to Jerusalem.

The United States now recognizes Jerusalem as the capitol of Israel. Israel is either a nation that is 75 years old or promised by God to Abraham’s descendants in the Book of Genesis well over 4000 years ago, depending on which point of view you want to adopt.

Brandon Moseley is a senior reporter with six and a half years at Alabama Political Reporter. You can email him at [email protected] or follow him on Facebook.

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Byrne, Brooks call on Mueller to “wrap up” investigation

Brandon Moseley

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Congressman Bradley Byrne, R-Montrose, said that Special Counsel Robert Mueller has accomplished very little and said it is time to wrap up the investigation.

Congressman Mo Brooks, R-Huntsville, said that the investigation should not continue past July.

Congressman Byrne said, “It has been one year since Robert Mueller was appointed to investigate Russian collusion related to the 2016 presidential election and very little has been accomplished. It is time for Mr. Mueller to wrap up his investigation.

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On Thursday, Representative Brooks went on CSPAN.

“I just want him to do his job,” Brooks said on TV. “Finish it. We cannot have this ongoing for years and years and years. It’s a distraction to our country. It interferes with our ability to address a lot of serious policy challenges that we face, and that’s in Congress. Imagine what it’s like in the White House where you’re having to look over your shoulder, where you have the FBI that is doing – you know if something was wrong, you’ve had two years now come July 5th that the FBI has been involved. Do your job. Finish it.”

“Mr. Mueller has a large team of lawyers and has spent millions of dollars over the past year, yet there still is no indication of illegal Russian collusion,” Byrne said. “While this constant drama of targeted leaks and far-flung investigations may be good for the national news media and liberal fundraising, it is not good for our country.”

The CSPAN host asked Brooks: “Robert Mueller appointed by Rod Rosenstein a year ago today on May 17th, 2017. Since then, 19 people including four Trump associates and three companies have been indicted from his investigation, five have pled guilty, 13 of those who have been charged are Russians accused of meddling in the elections. You were a former prosecutor in the Tuscaloosa DA’s office before…”

Brooks: “And the Madison County District Attorney’s office.”

C-SPAN: “…before coming to Congress. Is that not a good track record for a year’s worth of investigation?”

Brooks: “Well, you’re limiting it to Mueller. I’m talking about the big picture, and the big picture is two years. You know sometimes you’re not able to figure out who committed a crime— you know a crime has been committed— a murder or a robbery or what have you and the trail has gone dry and you haven’t been able to ascertain who the culprit is and you stop your investigation. It may reopen if something in the future pops up that suggests, hey, this is the person who did it. But we never had an ongoing investigation of a particular person that lasted anywhere near that length of time. Now, granted, this may be more complicated than most investigations. But two years, given all the resources of the Justice Department, given all the resources of the FBI, given the resources of everybody else who may have been involved in that, that’s plenty of time to conduct an investigation. Now keep in mind, I’m talking about two years to do the investigation— once you’ve got your cards laid out on the table, you’ve got your arrest warrants, you’ve got your indictments, take whatever time it needs to prosecute them in court but get the investigation done because it’s interfering. This is not a normal type of alleged crime and investigation and a prosecution. Normally, that’s very limited and has virtually no impact on our country. But, right now, this going on indefinitely is having a significant— in my judgment— having a significant adverse effect on the ability of the United States government to properly function and properly do its job, particularly at the Executive Branch, particularly at the White House level.”

“Ensuring the integrity of our elections and upholding the rule of law are both critically important and noble causes, but after a year the time has come for Mr. Mueller to either put forward a case or move on,” Byrne said.

Congress is increasingly putting pressure on Deputy Attorney General Rod Rosenstein to end the Mueller investigation. To this point Rosenstein has resisted that pressure.

Both Congressmen Bradley Byrne and Mo Brooks are running for re-election. Byrne has no Republican opponent in the coming primary, while Brooks faces a primary challenger from veteran Clayton Hinchman. The Republican Primary will be on June 5.

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Alabama GOP denounces Jones for voting no on Haspel

Sam Mattison

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The Alabama GOP rebuked Sen. Doug Jones, the state’s Democratic senator, over his no vote on a CIA director nominee that has drawn the ire of senators from both parties.

Jones signaled through a statement this week that he would vote no on the CIA nominee Gina Haspel’s confirmation. His reasoning was mostly based on Haspel’s answer to the question of whether she thought an enhanced interrogation program was immoral.

“While her career has been impressive, Ms. Haspel’s role in programs that conducted torture is very troubling; her refusal to acknowledge the immorality of such conduct even today with the benefit of hindsight is even more so and reflects poorly on our nation’s reputation as a moral leader in the world,” Jones said through a statement.

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The Alabama GOP, who have been critical of some of Jones’ moves while in the Senate, denounced the senator’s move.

Terry Lathan, chairman of the Alabama GOP, said that Haspel is a qualified candidate who is “deserving of a confirmation by the U.S. Senate.”

“In voting no to confirm Gina Haspel, Senator Jones is choosing to put partisanship over our nation’s security,” Lathan said. “Alabama voters will remember this when they head to the polls to choose their next U.S. Senator in 2020.”

Since Jones has taken office, the Alabama GOP has constantly reminded him of his pending election in 2020.

Jones narrowly won the seat in a Special Election in December after his opponent, former Supreme Court Chief Justice Roy Moore, faced a great backlash for allegations of sexual misconduct and dating teenagers nearly four decades ago.

Haspel, however, will face a vote soon in the Senate, and it is clear that she will win a nomination despite the opposition of most of the Democrats and a few influential Republicans.

Sen. John McCain, Republican from Arizona, was the most prominent in his denouncement.

“I believe Gina Haspel is a patriot who loves our country and has devoted her professional life to its service and defense,” McCain said. “However, Ms. Haspel’s role in overseeing the use of torture by Americans is disturbing. Her refusal to acknowledge torture’s immorality is disqualifying.”

Haspel’s role in a secret prison in Thailand and her involvement with a controversial program that used enhanced interrogation techniques has become a linchpin of opposition for the nominee.The program, a product of post 9/11 policies, used techniques to interrogate prisoners that some advocates call torture.

One allegation is that Haspel destroyed video tapes of interrogations conducted on Al-Qaeda suspects.

When asked about the program, Haspel said she would not continue the program if confirmed as director. She reiterated that point in a letter to Virginia Democrat Sen. Mark Warner on Wednesday when she said the program should have never been conducted.

The Senate Intelligence Committee confirmed Haspel on Wednesday, and she will now go before the full Senate.

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Ivey backs Nobel Peace Prize for Trump

Sam Mattison

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Gov. Kay Ivey threw her support behind President Donald Trump’s nomination for a Nobel Peace Prize through a letter on Tuesday.

Ivey singed the letter to the Nobel Committee along with six other governors supporting the president’s nomination.

“Though he has only been in office one year, President Trump has achieved an unprecedented victory for global peace and security,” the letter read.

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Ivey gave her own comments over Twitter.

“He is due to be honored for his ability to bring everyone to the table to discuss a way which offers the Korean Peninsula & world a path to peace,” Ivey said on Twitter.

Ivey is not alone in the calls for the president to receive a prize and even South Korean officials have credited Trump’s policies to pressuring North Korea into a peace talk.

Trump himself has declined to say if he should receive the award, but did say he wanted “victory for the world” in the Oval Office last Wednesday.

The Korean Peninsula has recently seen an era of peace after a period of tensions over North Korea’s nuclear program. Last year, North Korea successfully tested a hydrogen bomb and they have launched missiles over Japan.

Trump’s initial response was hawkish insisting that the United States would destroy North Korea if it continued hostilities and even gave North Korea’s leader Kim Jong-un the nickname “rocket man.”

Over the past 5 months, however, the two Koreas have come closer to peace with the two countries even competing in the Winter Olympics over the same flag.

Recently, Kim Jong-un visited South Korea for peace talks, and Trump is scheduled to talk to him in Singapore in June.

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Jerusalem now recognized as the capital of Israel: How did we get here?

by Brandon Moseley Read Time: 7 min
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