Alabama Attorney General Steven T. Marshall
National Crime Victims’ Rights Week in early April is an important time to recognize the issues facing victims of violent crime. However, for those of us in Law Enforcement and those whose careers have been dedicated to seeking justice for individuals who have been harmed, a focus on victims is not a one week proposition. They are our priority 365 days a year.
As a prosecutor for 16 years, I have seen first-hand the physical and emotional toll violent crime takes on victims and their families. However, law enforcement, prosecutors and victim service providers are motivated because we can make a positive difference by supporting those who have been harmed. This year’s national theme of Strength, Resilience, Justice reflects a vision for our response to victims’ needs.
At the Attorney General’s Office, we play an essential role in making this vision a reality. Statistics tell part of the story. In 2016 alone, our Office of Victim Assistance handled over 1,200 inquiries from crime victims and their families. We also assisted nearly 750 victims at Alabama Board of Pardons and Paroles hearings. Our Criminal Appeals section represented the State in more than 1,600 appeals and related matters with a 95 percent rate of upholding convictions in the Court of Criminal Appeals, and a 97 percent success rate in the Alabama Supreme Court.
Yet we are but one part of the broader effort that exists to protect victims and ensure they are heard. Local Law Enforcement and district attorneys are the true foot soldiers in this fight. These men and women have a calling. Many risk their lives daily to administer justice for victims, while others fight this battle in courtrooms across the state to see that offenders are held accountable and justice is served. Once cases are made, victims advocacy groups, such as Alabama’s Victims of Crime and Leniency (VOCAL), perform valuable service in providing moral support and assistance to violent crime victims and their families. Victim service officers in district attorney’s offices are also dedicated to the needs of victims and their families.
But what seems unspoken by all of us who come into contact with victims is what we learn from them. Victims who have faced the worst situations imaginable teach us invaluable lessons of strength, resilience and justice.
I saw STRENGTH just a few weeks ago as I stood with the victims of Jefferson County child molester Don Corley in opposing his early release. Corley was a man who was entrusted by his church and the Boy Scouts to mentor youth but abused that trust. I watched as three former boy scout troop members who he had been sexually abused testified against his parole before television cameras and a large crowd. Each spoke candidly about what this man had done to them. Each showed true courage and strength by speaking openly about their worst nightmare, discussing things most men would never want to admit publicly. Because of their strength, parole was denied and the offender will serve his full sentence.
I saw RESILIENCE during a recent visit with the family of victims of the 1996 Huntsville “cell phone murders” who were in Montgomery for the oral arguments in the appeal of one of the perpetrator’s death sentences. In committing his crimes, he, along with two other men, held seven people at gunpoint for nearly two hours, assaulting, torturing and then shooting the victims with 19 rounds, all over a stolen cell phone. The crime occurred over 20 years ago, but the family has persevered, never wavering in their desire to see that the convicted murders receive the punishment the judge imposed.
I know JUSTICE because of a boy named Uriel who died a day after his first birthday. His mother and her boyfriend brought him to a hospital saying that he had fallen off the bed and hit his head – a bed that actually was a mattress lying on the floor. The autopsy showed bruising from head to toe, two fractured ribs, burn and human bite marks and blunt force trauma to the head. I had a chance to obtain justice for Uriel and ensure that those who committed that offense would never harm anyone else. This little boy taught me that I had been given the solemn responsibility to secure justice for those who have been harmed and to embrace that important role for all victims that I served.
STRENGTH. RESILIENCE. JUSTICE. Going forward let us take strength from one another, be resilient by our common purpose and continue to be instruments for justice for all victims.
Steven T. Marshall is Alabama’s 48th Attorney General.
Opinion | Understanding the role of medical marijuana in the opioid crisis
Last week, the Alabama legislature took some of the first steps on SB165—a bill that would ultimately legalize medical cannabis in Alabama. This bill would move Alabama from the minority of states that continue to prohibit the prescribing of medical marijuana to the majority of states that do. While advocates and proponents of this bill have offered a number of arguments for and against the legalization of medical cannabis, a common thread has come to dominate much of the public debate over this bill. And that thread concerns the impact legalization of medical cannabis would have on the opioid crisis.
As the defining public health crisis of this generation, the opioid crisis has rightly been placed at the forefront of the medical cannabis conversation. In 2017, one American died of an opioid overdose every 11 minutes, and some estimates place the cost of the opioid crisis at over $500 billion. Alabama has not been immune from this crisis, and Blue Cross Blue Shield estimates that its Alabama members were more likely than others across the country to be on a long-duration opioid regime. Given the high stakes involved, the question of how medical cannabis legalization will affect the opioid crisis is obviously an important one.
In a study recently published in the Journal of Health Economics, two co-authors and I investigated the impact of medical cannabis access laws on opioid prescriptions across the country. In that study, we found strong and consistent evidence that enacting medical cannabis access laws reduces opioid prescriptions. In general, these laws decrease opioid prescriptions by 4.2 percent. While this may not, by itself, be enough to reverse the opioid crisis, reducing opioid prescriptions is an important step in addressing this crisis.
Our study was not the first to examine the impact of medical cannabis access laws on opioid prescriptions. However, the strength of our study lies not in its novelty, but in the data it analyzes. Instead of examining counts of opioid prescriptions among Medicare or Medicaid beneficiaries, we analyzed a dataset of over 1.5 billion individual opioid prescriptions across the country. This dataset included approximately 90 percent of all opioid prescriptions written in the United States between 2011 and 2018. And our data came from prescriptions paid for by commercial insurance, Medicaid, Medicare, other government assistance, and even cash.
With such rich data available in our study, we were able to obtain a clearer picture of the effect of medical cannabis access laws than has previously been possible. While we found that these laws reduced opioid prescriptions in general by 4.2 percent, they had larger impacts on certain groups. For example, medical cannabis access laws reduced opioid prescriptions to those with commercial insurance by 4.4 percent and to those with Medicaid by 5.2 percent.
These laws may reduce opioid prescriptions in various ways, and our study found suggestive evidence that one important way may be facilitating the substitution of cannabis for opioids in the treatment of pain. In addition to reducing the use of prescription opioids, our study revealed evidence that medical cannabis access laws also reduce NSAID prescriptions. NSAIDS are often found in common, over-the-counter pain medications. This reduction in another type of medication used in the treatment of pain suggests that the reduction in prescription opioids may be driven by a decreased need for pain treatment once individuals can access medical cannabis. And our results are consistent with the conclusion of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine which found “conclusive. . . evidence that cannabis. . . [is] effective. . . [f]or the treatment of chronic pain in adults.”
As the Alabama legislature completes its task of debating whether to join the majority of states that allow access to medical cannabis, understanding the role of this law in the opioid crisis will be critically important.
Opinion | Vote “yes” for better education
Did you know Alabama’s schools are ranked 52nd in math and 49th in reading? This is unacceptable. Yes on Amendment 1 takes the first step toward improving our schools.
Gov. Kay Ivey has made it abundantly clear. Alabama’s failures in education are not the fault of students or our hardworking teachers, principals and superintendents. The problem is lack of stable, visionary leadership.
Our current system is not working. In Alabama, we’re used to winning. But in education, the state is consistently dead last. We wouldn’t tolerate this kind of performance from our coaches or business leaders, and we must not settle for mediocrity when it comes to our children’s future.
Alabama is one of only six states that still has an elected state school board, and this board has had five superintendents in the last four years.
Amendment 1 gets politicians off the board and replaces them with nine commission members who will bring focus, innovation and accountability to Alabama’s K-12 education system. Our community college system transitioned to this model and has lifted itself out of the mire of scandal by refocusing on student achievement and preparedness.
Commission members will serve no more than two consecutive six-year terms and will be accountable to our elected state senators. They also are required to reflect the diversity of Alabama’s public school students.
Amendment 1 clearly outlines responsibilities for the commission: teacher certification, professional development, student assessment and accountability. In addition, it requires adoption of education standards to replace common core.
Amendment 1 does not take control away from local school boards, and it does not diminish the value of our teachers. To the contrary, Amendment 1 will help teachers, students and local schools by bringing strategic, productive leadership to education policy at the state level.
Gov. Ivey said it best. “For us to prepare today’s students for tomorrow’s opportunities, it is time we get serious: It’s time for creativity. It’s time for accountability. It’s time for stability.
“It’s time to vote YES for Amendment 1 on March 3rd!”
Opinion | Alabama’s economic boom should be heard and felt across the state
When I was growing up in Haleyville, I can remember people in July and August saying, “it’s hotter’n blue blazes outside.” Well, you could certainly describe America and Alabama’s current economic boom as being “hotter’n blue blazes.” Alabama’s economy is scorching hot, with the lowest unemployment numbers in our state’s history. One county economic development director told me that “if you want a job, you can find one right now.”
I don’t doubt that’s true, but unfortunately it also depends on what part of the state you live in. If you are willing and able to drive a couple of hours to and from work, then you certainly have many more options. Our Defense and Space industries are experiencing tremendous growth. Agriculture is booming. Alabama is the nation’s second largest producer of poultry – and that’s a good thing.
But we can do even better. A lot of people can’t commute long distances every day to reach good jobs, so we’ve got bring the jobs to them. I believe we can bring high paying, quality jobs to every corner of the 4th District and Alabama and rural America as a whole. We need to rebuild our essential manufacturing base – and that’s something that President Trump has focused on.
And to build upon that, we must prioritize building up our infrastructure. We must expand high speed internet to every square mile of the 4th District and North Alabama. We must protect rural hospitals and clinics to make sure people everywhere have access to high quality healthcare. And we must ensure we have a highly trained work force with the skills employers are looking for.
During a recent visit to a locally owned business in Muscle Shoals, Alabama, I was told they have jobs available, but they can’t find candidates who can pass a drug test. This is why I worked in Congress to allocate more than a billion dollars to fight the opioid epidemic. A highly skilled workforce is essential, but we also need a workforce that isn’t dependent on illegal substances to get though the day. Lack of employment and dependency on drugs is an evil and all-consuming cycle. We can break that cycle.
We also need to make sure our trade policies are based on common sense. We want to increase trade by eliminating unfair foreign trade policies. President Trump did that in the U.S.- Mexico- Canadian (USMCA) trade deal, which opens more markets for American products and helps make America more competitive. That makes a big difference for our farmers, manufacturers, businesses and for consumers. We’ll have more opportunities for common-sense trade deals in the coming years.
It’s also time for us to stop associating social status and class on whether someone has a four-year college degree. Trust me, I know many people who have bachelors and master’s degrees that aren’t worth the paper they’re written on. And at the same time, I’ve heard of people who have two-year welding degrees from colleges like Wallace State who are making money we normally associate with a doctor.
Two-year associate degrees and high school vocational classes are just as valuable to our economic wellbeing than an economics degree from Harvard. If someone aspires to achieve a four-year degree, that’s great, but they should never be celebrated more than the person who decides to open his own plumbing business. This is why I’m so supportive of our state’s two-year college system and our vocational schools.
Alabama has so much economic potential. I hope you will join me in making sure we see this economic expansion continues in places like Huntsville, but also expands into places like Lamar, DeKalb and Fayette counties. There’s no reason we shouldn’t all be able to take part in how hot the Alabama economy is right now. As we also used to say in Haleyville, it’s 100 degrees in the shade!
Opinion | I proudly salute our state leadership, Alabamians, our Air Force and our Space Force leadership
Secretary of the Air Force Barbara Barrett, according to AFNS in an piece titled, “Department of the Air Force to consider military family support measures in future basing decisions,” recently approved criteria, to assess states’ policies, for accepting professional career licenses, and a community’s public education system, support of military children; as part of its strategic basing process.
The addition of these criteria aims, to ensure locations, under consideration, have sufficient support, for the unique needs, of military families, who relocate frequently.
“The communities where service members, live and work; impact readiness, retention, and the satisfaction of families,” said Secretary Barrett. “Future basing decisions made, will ensure optimal conditions, for service members, and their families.”
The article goes on to explain, some of the issues, that influence the military members decision, to remain on active duty are, local public education aspects, and support for their children; along with their spouses, to sustain careers, move after move.
It also states, the Air Force collaborated with professional, and subject matter experts, to develop two types of analytic frameworks.
The public education framework, will be used to evaluate public school districts’, educational aspects, and ability, to support transferring military children, in Pre-Kindergarten through the 12th grade, near Air Force installations.
The licensure portability framework, will be used to assess state laws, governors’ executive orders, state Supreme Court, or bar association rules, and the ability for an area, to accommodate licenses earned, from other locations.
The article further states, while mission requirements remain the top priority, for where a mission is based, the Air Force has developed, a process, to include these support of military family considerations.
The methodology, for these criteria, will be used for future basing decisions, as the Air Force continues, to collaborate, with policy professionals, and subject matter experts.
The piece ends, with Madam Secretary Barrett’s comments. “We know improving schools, and changing licensure regulations, take time, but efforts to meet the unique needs, of military families are vital. States that have improved services, for military families, should be commended and emulated.”
The criteria will be formally incorporated into the basing process in the spring.
Based on our Secretary of the Air Force’s awesome comments, at this point, I want to respectfully ask all of our state leaders, since the Legislature is currently in Session, that our Great State continue, in our efforts, to lead the way, in making Alabama the most military- friendly state in the nation.
For instance, concerning the licensure portability framework, through Legislation, by waiving all transferring military family, professional licensure fees, and by seamlessly, smoothly moving, and accepting, the professional licensures, from other states, through licensure reciprocity.
Think about military families, having to transfer, every one or two years, and filling out tons of documents, that take weeks, to gather the required pertinent documents, and to complete; and submit all documents. The numerous hours expended, and the fees, and the costs, dollar wise are often exorbitant. Military families, currently in many states, have to pay the same, or higher fees, as they frequently transfer, over and over again.
Remember, also many military families, may have been in overseas locations, and remote assignments, in which their licensure, may have expired; and their required number of continuing professional education hours; could not be obtained, nor met. Due to these extenuating circumstances, Legislation is also needed, in which waivers may be granted, so our military families, may be allowed, to regain their licensure; vice having to start basically, from the beginning processes, or re-test to regain their eligibility; and to receive needed credentials, and required certifications.
Some military families, may face issues, beyond their control, in which no jobs are available at their next duty stations. Families may have to make the tough decisions, to accept a transfer assignment, such as going from two family members working, to one family member working. Legislation is also needed, to support all military families, and their spouses, who want to work and, or attend colleges and universities to obtain their degrees.
Concerning the education framework portion, Madam Secretary Barrett mentioned; our Great State is currently, leading the way, in helping military families. I would also, like to respectfully ask, our state Leaders, to continue with your Legislative initiatives, to build the DODEA, Military Magnet, Pre-Kindergarten through 12th grade schools on, or near the base at Maxwell-Gunter Air Force Base. Along, with your initiatives, to allow the children of military families to attend regional Magnet Schools. Regardless, if families, faculty, professors and instructors live on-base or off-base.
Additionally, add to the Legislation, that families at Maxwell-Gunter Air Force Base be allowed to attend out of District schools also in Lee County, including Auburn City Schools. In addition, to counties such as Autauga, Elmore and Pike Road City Schools.
In my view, I believe that our Great State, through the highly outstanding leadership, of Governor Kay Ivey. Lt. Gov Will Ainsworth, House Speaker Rep. Mac McCutcheon, Senate Pro Tempore Sen. Del Marsh, and the Legislature, have earned an A+.
I see no other states, nor its leadership, this highly engaged, and proactive, to ensure that military families, are being taken care of, in such a gracious manner. Alabama is the most-military friendly state in the nation. No other state has higher numbers of military- family related Legislative initiatives, on their schedules, nor presently in the works.
Throughout our Air Force and our Space Force, our top leaders and their spouses are visiting families at their on-base homes and on-base military base schools. It touches your heart, when leaders, care about others, and their families.
Respectfully, my recommendation, to our Secretary of the Air Force; if there are any military basing locations to be considered. Please place Alabama, in the number one slot, and at the top of the list. Over the years, I’ve actually had a privileged opportunity, to work with these outstanding problem solvers, and highly distinguished Alabama Leaders. We want more, Air Force and Space Force, military families and neighbors.
I proudly salute our state Leadership, Alabamians, our Air Force and our Space Force Leadership; and all military members, families, civilian employees and the Total Force. You all earned an A+.
Glenn Henry is retired from the U.S. Air Force. He has been a high school teacher and university adjunct professor. He has earned numerous IT Cisco certifications. He is a Certified Professional Ethical Hacker. He lives in Montgomery with his wife Teresa.
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