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The rapid resurgence of neo-Confederate and White Nationalist groups in Alabama

Chip Brownlee



By Chip Brownlee
Alabama Political Reporter

MONTGOMERY — The domestic terror attack in Charlottesville last week is evidence of, if anything, the rapid resurgence and normalization of hate groups in the US. And in Alabama, neo-Confederate groups and the Ku Klux Klan have returned to what could be a level of relevance.

Earlier this year, the Montgomery-based Southern Poverty Law Center released their annual Hate Map and Intelligence Report, which showed that right-wing extremists and hate groups like the Klan and the League of the South, gained unprecedented ground in returning to the political mainstream.

The attack in Charlottesville, which resulted in the deaths of 32-year-old Heather Heyer and two Virginia State Police officers, is evidence of that rise, according to SPLC Outreach Director Lecia Brooks.

“The fact that the alt-right got together with these hate groups and Klan groups is a really big deal,” Brooks said in an interview with APR. “It means that they are consolidating their forces. They’re really trying to make their moves together. That has never been seen before.”

In 2016, 917 hate groups — ranging from the League of the South and the Klan to Black separatist groups like the Nation of Islam and anti-LGBT groups like Westboro — were active in the US. That was a big rise from 882 the year before and 784 in 2014.

In Alabama, there are currently at least 27 active Hate Groups including 11 Klan chapters, five neo-Confederate League groups, three neo-Nazi groups and two White Nationalist groups.

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These groups were for decades relegated and pushed to the margins of what was politically acceptable, Brooks said, but rising anti-immigrant sentiments, the ever apparent effects of globalization and a surge in right-wing populism have provided an opening for these groups to return.

“They are actively recruiting,” Brooks said.  “We would definitely tie that to emboldening that is coming from the so-called alt-right. The surge of the alt-right has made it possible for the Klan to regain something that is like relevance. They’re trying to pick up where they left off.”

The alt-right is a political ideology that mixes racism, White Nationalism and anti-Semitism with a brand of nationalist populism. The name has been embraced by some white supremacists and white nationalists to refer to themselves in a way that is more palatable to the average person — essentially trading in Klan hoods and Nazi swastikas in favor of suits and refined speeches.


The Klan’s return in Alabama has been marked by instances of what is called leafleting,  dropping hundreds if not thousands of racist recruitment fliers across public places in order to attract members and garner media attention. Several instances have occurred in Birmingham since 2014 — the most recent of which was in June when KKK flyers were distributed warning that the Klan “is alert and awake.”

And on college campuses the effects are similar.Earlier this year, dozens of racist, anti-Semitic fliers were posted around Auburn University’s campus promoting a so-called “White Student Union.” Full membership in the group, according to their website, is open only to students of European ancestry and “good character.” And Auburn isn’t the only place that has been subject to such racist fliering incidents. The Anti-Defamation League has said more than 100 incidents like the one at Auburn have occurred on college campuses during the 2016-17 school year, 65 percent of which occurred after President Donald Trump’s inauguration in January.

Earlier this year, dozens of racist, anti-Semitic fliers were posted around Auburn University’s campus promoting a so-called “White Student Union.” Full membership in the group, according to their website, is open only to students of European ancestry and “good character.”And Auburn isn’t the only place that has been subject to such racist fliering incidents. The Anti-Defamation League has said more than 100 incidents like the one at Auburn have occurred on college campuses during the 2016-17 school year, 65 percent of which occurred after President Donald Trump’s inauguration in January.

Auburn isn’t the only place that has been subject to such racist fliering incidents. The Anti-Defamation League has said more than 100 incidents like the one at Auburn have occurred on college campuses during the 2016-17 school year, 65 percent of which occurred after President Donald Trump’s inauguration in January.

And the increasingly contentious debate over the removal of Confederate monuments from places of public prominence and grandeur has done nothing but empower these groups, which recruit members by tapping into changes in demographics and culture to make white people feel as if there is a “white genocide.”

What turned into a violent white nationalist and white supremacist rally in Charlottesville was originally billed as a rally protesting the removal of a statue of Confederate General Robert E. Lee in the city. The White Nationalist groups took over the rally and used the more mainstream debate over Confederate monuments to justify and extend their own narratives of white power and identitarianism.

“In a few decades, whites will no longer be the majority,” Brooks said. “People of color will be the majority. That causes anxiety. The thought came when President Obama was elected. That was a real change in terms of the white power structure.”

By the year 2050, white people will no longer be the numerical majority in the US, replaced instead by people of color including black and latino people. Some refer to it as the “browning of America.”

It’s really just America becoming more diverse,” Brooks said. 

The 2016 report showed a small drop in Klan groups in particular but it isn’t clear how the increase of fliering incidents and the newfound attention given to white nationalist leaders such as Richard Spencer and Matthew Heimbach, the leader of the white supremacist Traditional Workers Party, will affect the numbers of those groups.

The drop in 2016, according to the SPLC, was largely due to contraction after those groups expanded explosively from 2009 to 2014. The overall increase in hate groups was made up with an increase among anti-LGBT and anti-Muslim groups, which saw a spike in 2015. If the fliering incidents are any evidence, the groups could be expanding again.

Brooks said Trump’s inflammatory campaign rhetoric last year fanned the flames.

“The changing demographics of the nation and the notion that whites are being pushed aside and them believing that a Trump presidency would somehow change all of that,” she said.

How to deal with the rise in these groups has been the subject of intense debate as well. Just last week, the University of Alabama at Birmingham’s Institue for Human Rights issued a list of tips on how to confront hate in the wake of the Charlottesville attack, which included knowing your human rights, speaking up against injustice, being aware of your own biases and educating others.

The SPLC has also published a guide on how college students should respond to alt-right provocateurs like Milo Yiannopolous and extremists like Spencer and Heimbach, who have made a concerted effort to garner a following among college students through college tours like Spencer’s speech at Auburn in April.

Brooks said the best way to combat white nationalism and hate groups is by exposing them for what they are: racist groups hell bent on taking the US in a destructive, violent direction.

“Saying that no, this is not who we are, these are not American values,” Brooks said. “We reject white supremacy. We are going to stand for doing this together.”

On campuses, her prescription was more interesting. She said universities need to do a better job of including white males under the umbrella of inclusion and diversity.

“We need to make sure that diversity and inclusion include everybody and it’s not just people of color or LGBT folks or Jewish folks,” Brooks said. “That should include white men too. If that were done, then they wouldn’t be as susceptible to recruitment efforts.”

And while more open and candid conversations need to happen about white identity, changing demographics, diversity and tolerance, it’s hard to debate with people who have misguided delusions that they are superior.

We need to move forward, and move forward together,” Brooks said. “The fact that they would call for an ethnically separate state is just disheartening. We’re the ones who started this experiment that all people are created equal. The fact that they would give up on it and try to go backward is just disheartening.”


Chip Brownlee is a political reporter, online content manager and webmaster at the Alabama Political Reporter. You can email him at [email protected] or reach him via Twitter.


In Case You Missed It

House passes General Fund Budget

Brandon Moseley



By Brandon Moseley
Alabama Political Reporter

The Alabama House of Representatives passed the state General Fund Budget on Tuesday.

The General Fund Budget for the 2019 fiscal year is Senate Bill 178. It is sponsored by Sen. Trip Pittman, R-Montrose. State Rep. Steve Clouse, R-Ozark, carried the budget on the House floor. Clouse chairs the House Ways and Means General Fund Committee.

Clouse said, “Last year we monetized the BP settlement money and held over $97 million to this year.”

Clouse said that the state is still trying to come up with a solution to the federal lawsuit over the state prisons. The Governor’s Office has made some progress after she took over from Gov. Robert Bentley. The supplemental we just passed added $30 million to prisons.

The budget adds $50 million to the Department of Corrections.

Clouse said that the budget increased the money for prisons by $55,680,000 and includes $4.8 million to buy the privately-owned prison facility in Perry County.

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Clouse said that the budget raises funding for the judicial system and raises the appropriation for the Forensic Sciences to $11.7 million.

The House passed a committee substitute so the Senate is either going to have to concur with the changes made by the House or a conference committee will have to be appointed. Clouse told reporters that he hoped that it did not have to go to conference.

Clouse said that the budget had added $860,000 to hire more Juvenile Probation Officers. After talking to officials with the court system that was cut in half in the amendment. The amendment also includes some wording the arbiters in the court lawsuit think we need.


The state General Fund Budget, SB178, passed 98-1.

Both budgets have now passed the Alabama House of Representatives.

The 2019 fiscal year begins on Oct. 1, 2018.

In addition to the SGF, the House also passed a supplemental appropriation for the current 2018 budget year. SB175 is also sponsored by Pittman and was carried by Clouse on the floor of the House.

SB175 includes $30 million in additional 2018 money for the Department of Corrections. The Departmental Emergency Fund, the Examiners of Public Accounts, the Insurance Department and Forensic Sciences received additional money.

Clouse said, “We knew dealing with the federal lawsuit was going to be expensive. We are adding $80 million to the Department of Corrections.”

State Representative Johnny Mack Morrow, R-Red Bay, said that state Department of Forensics was cut from $14 million to $9 million. “Why are we adding money for DA and courts if we don’t have money for forensics to provide evidence? if there is any agency in law enforcement or the court system that should be funded it is Forensics.”

The supplemental 2018 appropriation passed 80 to 1.

The House also passed SB203. It was sponsored by Pittman and was carried in the House by State Rep. Ken Johnson, R-Moulton. It raises securities and registration fees for agents and investment advisors. It increases the filing fees for certain management investment companies. Johnson said that those fees had not been adjusted since 2009.

The House also passed SB176, which is an annual appropriation for the Coalition Against Domestic Violence. The bill requires that the agency have an operations plan, audited financial statement, and quarterly and end of year reports. SB176 is sponsored by Pittman and was carried on the House floor by State Rep. Elaine Beech, D-Chatham.

The House passed Senate Bill 185 which gives state employees a cost of living increase in the 2019 budget beginning on October 1. It was sponsored by Sen. Clyde Chambliss, R-Prattville and was being carried on the House floor by state Rep. Dimitri Polizos, R-Montgomery.

Polizos said that this was the first raise for non-education state employees in nine years. It is a 3 percent raise.

SB185 passed 101-0.

Senate Bill 215 gives retired state employees a one time bonus check. SB215 is sponsored by Senator Gerald Dial, R-Lineville, and was carried on the House floor by state Rep. Kerry Rich, R-Guntersville.

Rich said that retired employees will get a bonus $1  for every month that they worked for the state. For employees who retired with 25 years of service that will be a $300 one time bonus. A 20-year retiree would get $240 and a 35-year employee would get $420.

SB215 passed the House 87-0.

The House passed Senate Bill 231, which is the appropriation bill increase amount to the Emergency Forest Fire and Insect and Disease Fund. SB231 is sponsored by Sen. Steve Livingston, R-Scottsboro, and was carried on the House floor by state Rep. Kyle South, R-Fayette.

State Rep. Elaine Beech, D-Chathom, said, “Thank you for bringing this bill my district is full of trees and you never know when a forest fire will hit.

SB231 passed 87-2.

The state of Alabama is unique among the states in that most of the money is earmarked for specific purposes allowing the Legislature little year-to-year flexibility in moving funds around.

The SGF includes appropriations for the Alabama Medicaid Agency, the courts, the Alabama Law Enforcement Agency, the Alabama Department of Corrections, mental health, and most state agencies that are no education related. The Alabama Department of Transportation gets their funding mostly from state fuel taxes.

The Legislature also gives ALEA a portion of the gas taxes. K-12 education, the two year college system, and all the universities get their state support from the education trust fund (ETF) budget. There are also billions of dollars in revenue that are earmarked for a variety of purposes that does not show up in the SGF or ETF budgets.

Examples of that include the Public Service Commission, which collects utility taxes from the industries that it regulates. The PSC is supported entirely by its own revenue streams and contributes $13 million to the SGF. The Secretary of State’s Office is entirely funded by its corporate filing and other fees and gets no SGF appropriation.

Clouse warned reporters that part of the reason this budget had so much money was due to the BP oil spill settlement that provided money for the 2018 budget and $97 million for the 2019 budget. Clouse said they elected to make a $13 million repayment to the Alabama Trust fund that was not due until 2020 but that is all that was held over for 2020.

Clouse predicted that the Legislature will have to make some hard decisions about revenue in next year’s session.


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In Case You Missed It

Day Care bill delayed for second time on Senate floor, may be back Thursday

Sam Mattison



By Samuel Mattison
Alabama Political Reporter

The day care bill, which would license certain day care centers in Alabama, was once again delayed on the state Senate floor after one lawmaker requested more information.

Its brief appearance Tuesday ended with state Sen. Gerald Dial, R-Lineville, saying a compromise had not yet been worked out with the bill’s detractors.

Alabama’s Senate has been hesitant to act on the legislation because of complaints of state Sen. Shay Shelnutt, R-Trussville, who has been an opponent of the bill since its introduction last year. The bill’s delay on Tuesday marks the second time its been taken off the Senate’s agenda.

The bill has had a rocky time in this year’s session, but the bill’s sponsor state Rep. Pebblin Warren, D-Tuskegee, said she is still confident about its passage out of the Legislature.

Warren, D-Tuskegee, filed the bill this session with the support of influential lawmakers including Gov. Kay Ivey, who told reporters last year that she though all day cares should be licensed.

Mainly sparked by the death of 5-year-old boy in the care of a unlicensed day care worker, the bill had great momentum coming into this year’ session.

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Despite the growing support from lawmakers, Religious groups had concerns that the bill would increase state-sponsored reach into religious day cares in churches and non-profit groups.

Spearheading the dissenters was Alabama Citizens Action Program, a conservative religious-based PAC.

Warren, proponents, and ALCAP announced a compromise to the bill while it was still in the Alabama House.


Announced by ALCAP originally, the new bill was a weaker version in that it did not require that all day cares in the state be regulated. Instead, religious-based day cares would only need to be registered if they received federal funds. At a Senate committee meeting in February, Warren said a similar requirement was about to come from federal law in Congress.

The bill moved through the House in a overwhelming vote in favor of the proposal and passed unanimously out of a Senate committee a few weeks ago.

Warren, speaking to reporters after its passage from the House, said she was unsure if the bill would encounter resistance in the upper chamber.

It was the Senate that killed the daycare bill last year amid a cramped last day where senators took the bill off the floor. The bill may face similar complications this year, as lawmakers seem to be preparing to adjourn within a few weeks.

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In Case You Missed It

Fantasy sports bill fails on Senate floor

Sam Mattison



By Samuel Mattison
Alabama Political Reporter

Would-be Fantasy Sports players in Alabama will have to wait to legally play in the state following a Senate vote on Tuesday.

The Alabama Senate decisively killed a bill to exempt fantasy sports from the state’s prohibition on gambling.

Not even entertaining a debate on the Senate floor, the proposal was killed during a vote for the Budget Isolation Resolution, which is usually a formality vote preluding a debate.

Fantasy sports are contests where participants select players from real teams to compete on fantasy teams using the real-world players’ stats.

Since 2016, the practice has been illegal in Alabama following a legal decision by the Attorney General’s Office that categorized it as gambling.

The bill’s sponsor, state Sen. Paul Sanford, R-Huntsville, predicted the bill’s failure during a committee meeting two weeks ago, where the bill passed unanimously.

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Sen. Paul Sanford speaks to reporters after a Senate Committee meeting on Feb. 28, 2018. (Samuel Mattison/APR)

Speaking to reporter’s after the committee meeting, Sanford said the decision to file the bill was mainly a philosophical belief that the practice shouldn’t be illegal.

Sanford, a fantasy sports player before its ban, said that fantasy sports are a way to bring people closer together and not a means to win money. The Huntsville senator is not seeking re-election.

The bill’s failure in the Senate follows its trajectory last year too. A similar version of the bill, also sponsored by Sanford, failed in the Senate during the final days of the 2017 Legislative Session.


Since Sanford is retiring, it is unclear if the bill will even come back next session, or if it will even have a Senate sponsor.

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House OKs bill to clarify consulting contracts by state legislators

Brandon Moseley



By Brandon Moseley
Alabama Political Reporter

Tuesday, the Alabama House of Representatives passed a bill to try to clarify how legislators accept consulting contracts under Alabama’s 2010 ethics law. Some pundits have suggested that House Bill 387 is actually designed to weaken the existing ethics law.

Sponsor state Rep. Rich Wingo, R-Tuscaloosa, argues that the legislation is merely a clarification and is intended to prevent legislators from inadvertently crossing the line into illegality.

Wingo said that his bill would require legislators to notify the Alabama Ethics Commission that they have entered into a consulting agreement in an area outside of their normal scope of work.

State Rep. Paul Beckman, R-Prattville, said, “I have never understood why members of this body were allowed to take contracts as consultants or counselors.”

Wingo said, “Never do I use the word counselor in my bill; it is consulting.”

Beckman asked, “Are we going to be getting into an area where  every time we turn around we create a bureaucratic nightmare where we have to go get an opinion. These opinions whether it is orally or written don’t hold up in a court of law.” Beckman said, “We are serving the people here but we get this admonition that we can still be a consultant if we get an opinion.”

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Wingo said, “This does not apply to professions where a member is currently licensed.”

Beckman said, “I would like to see more opinions coming out of the Ethics Commission. Right now we have the Ethics Commission competing with the Attorney General’s office over who has more authority.”

State Rep. John Rogers, D-Birmingham, said,”This happened to a friend of mine. He just got out of prison. He was a state senator and had a written letter from the Ethics Commission which his lawyer read at trial and the jury convicted him anyway.”


Rogers never named his friend, but reporters think he was talking about former state Sen. Edward Browning ‘E. B.’ McClain who spent over 22 years in the legislature until he was convicted on 47 counts of conspiracy, mail fraud, bribery, and money laundry in 2009.

A federal jury found that McClain and the Rev. Samuel Pettagrue were guilty in a scheme where McClain would secure public funds for Pettagrue’s community programs and then receive a kickback once the funds were in hand. McClain was sentenced to five years and ten months in prison. McClain was not prosecuted under the Alabama ethics law as the state has a much weaker ethics statute then. The current ethics law was passed in 2010.

Rogers said, “If they offer me a consulting contract for a field like aerospace engineering that I know nothing about they are trying to pay me off. If you can already be a consultant for something you know about why would you seek a consulting contract for something you don’t know about.

Rogers this is how they can pay you off for your vote.”

State Rep. Artis “A.J.” McCampbell said, “I don’t like making changes to things like this because we get into things called unintended consequences.”

McCampbell was reading from the bill and Wingo said, “You are reading from the original version it has completely changed.” “We worked tirelessly on this bill with the Ethics Commission this is not a fly by night bill.”

“If a member of the legislature enters into a contract to do a consulting contract outside of their normal field of work this bill requires that they consult with the Ethics Commission first,” Wingo said. “It is up to the member to notify the Ethics Commission not to the company or person offering them the money.”

State Representative Pebblin Warren, D-Tuskegee, said, “Everybody but legislators are allowed to do contract work up to $30,000.”

Rep. Wingo said, “This is not intended to be a roadblock.”

State Representative Arnold Mooney, R-Indian Springs, said, “The whole purpose of this is not to prevent members from doing work in your field.” “What you are doing is offering to protect me.”

State Representative John Knight, D-Montgomery, asked Wingo what the Alabama Attorney General said about this legislation.

Wingo replied, “I have not contacted the Attorney General.”

Knight responded, “Something from the Ethics Commission does not carry a lot of protection from the Attorney General. We have seen that in the past. I think the Attorney General and the Ethics Commission should be in agreement in the working on this.”

Wingo answered, “Maybe this is a first step.”

Rep. Laura Hall, D-Huntsville, asked, “Do we have anybody doing work outside of their regular scope of work?”

Wingo answered, “Yes I think so.”

Wingo said, “If we had had this bill four or five years ago maybe we could have been spared the embarrassment that this body experienced with the former Speaker.”

Wingo was referring to former Speaker of the House Mike Hubbard who was convicted of 12 counts of felony ethics violations in June 2016. Ironically, Hubbard is largely responsible for creating the ethics law that he was found guilty of violating 11 times in his relentless pursuit of outside contracts and personal wealth.

Unlike McClain, however, Hubbard has not yet served any of this sentence.

House Bill 387 passed 67-0 with 26 legislators abstaining.

The bill now moves to the Senate for its consideration.

(Original reporting by the Alabama Media Group’s Lisa Osborn in 2009 was consulted in this report.)

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