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Senator Ward’s SB84 on Habitual Offenders Act Catches Serious Criticism

Lee Hedgepeth

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By Lee Hedgepeth
Alabama Political Reporter

A bill by Senator Cam Ward pre-filed in preparation for the upcoming state legislative session, which begins tomorrow, is currently facing serious criticism from Democrats in the legislature as well as nonprofit justice advocacy groups.

Senate Bill 84, sponsored by the 14th District Republican, would repeal an amendment to the Habitual Offender Act, Alabama’s version of the three strikes law, that held retroactive an earlier provision allowing for the appeal of life without parole mandatory sentences for nonviolent offenders. While it may sound complex, given relevant context, the particulars of SB84 are simple.

The Habitual Offenders Act, 1977

Following at the footsteps of Texas, which passed similar legislation in 1974, Alabama in 1977 passed what is known as the Habitual Offenders Act. It provided – without exception –that those who had been convicted of three felony crimes were to be sentenced to certain mandatory minimum sentences, with the desired effect of reducing recidivism by being “tough on crime.” In cases where the fourth offense, for example, was a Class A felony where the usual sentence would be 10-99 years with the automatic possibility of parole, the new mandatory minimum assessed for the crime would be life in prison with no possibility of parole; for a Class B fourth offense, a mandatory of life with the possibility of parole would be the minimum sentence.

Under that scheme, sentence averages in Alabama exploded, and incarceration rates among the general population did, too. In 1977, only 1.5 percent of Alabamians were incarcerated; today, .65 percent of Alabamians are living at taxpayer expense in prisons and jails across the state. There are more inmates in state correctional facilities today solely under the Habitual Offenders Act, around 8,000, than there were in 1977 for any crime at all, approximately 5,500.

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Incarceration rates from 1977 are from the Equal Justice Initiative:
http://www.eji.org/files/Prison%20Crisis.pdf

Incarceration rates from today are from the Alabama Department of Corrections, realtime: http://www.doc.state.al.us/InmateSearch.aspx

All overall population information comes from the US Census Bureau’s statistics, available here: https://www.google.com/#q=alabama+population

Examples of egregious prosecutions under the law gained national fame. Jerald Sanders, who had stolen a $16 bicycle from a back porch of a home in northern Alabama, received a life without parole sentence because of drug convictions decades earlier. Lydia Diane Jones was also sentenced to life without parole for drug charges involving marijuana and cocaine that were found in a home occupied by her ex-boyfriend; she had come to the house to gather clothes she had left behind. Her prior convictions included charges stemming from using a forged check for food at a local grocery store.

Amendments to the Habitual Offenders Act

Realizing the impact of the wide net the law was casting over nonviolent offenders as well as hardened criminals, many in the Alabama Legislature supported, and eventually passed, an amendment to the 1977 law that provided “consideration of early parole of each nonviolent convicted offender based on evaluations performed by the Department of Corrections and approved by the Board of Pardons and Paroles and submitted to the court.”

In 2001, at the support of now passed civil rights leader and Democratic Representative Demetrius Newton, and upon realizing the backlog of nonviolent offenders convicted prior to the amendment, the Alabama Legislature passed a bill that allowed application for those with convictions before 2000. In effect, all nonviolent inmates would be able to call for reconsideration of their sentencing under the new version of law. According to the legislators who passed the bill, the express purpose of the amendment was to “to provide further for eligibility for parole consideration of non-violent offenders.”

Amendment Application

The passage of the amendments, however, did not immediately lead to the release of any inmates or any considerations of parole. Immediately after the amendment’s passage, then-Governor Don Siegelman issued an executive order directing the Department of Correction and the Parole Board to make such regulations as would be necessary to implement the changes. Despite this, the agencies refused, questioning the constitutional validity of the new provisions and denying their implementation them without a judicial clarification.

Kirby v. State of Alabama, 2004

It would take years for that clarification, but it would come in the form of an opinion of the Supreme Court of Alabama in August of 2004. Junior Mack Kirby, who had been prosecuted under the act prior to 2000, sought relief from Alabama’s highest court, claiming that the new provisions were constitutional and that his request for a new sentence hearing must move forward. In a unanimous Ex Parte opinion, then-Chief Justice Drayton Nabers said that “[The new provision] provides that an inmate may ask the sentencing judge or the presiding judge for relief from a previous sentence imposed pursuant to the [Habitual Offenders Act] and provides that the court is to consider the evaluation of the DOC in considering the inmate’s motion. [It also] clearly confers jurisdiction on the sentencing judge or the presiding judge by giving that judge the power to apply the provisions… retroactively to ‘nonviolent convicted offenders’ and by providing the procedure by which the provisions of the statute are to be applied.”

No longer could Alabama bar eligible inmates from applying for reconsideration of their sentences under the act, even if any changes were to be made solely at the discretion of trial judges.

Recent Changes

In 2012, the Alabama Legislature went a step further. In light of ever increasing prison costs and populations, a bill was passed making sentencing guidelines such as those in the amendments presumptive in most cases, taking most discretion away from the judge, and requiring a deference to liberty interests for nonviolent fourth time offenders.

At the time of its passage, Madison County District Attorney Rob Broussard explained his motives to the Alabama Media Group, saying that although in a perfect world all prosecutors could be ‘tough on crime:’

“In the practical, budget-driven world, we understand why we have [these presumptive guidelines]. In this state, as in a lot of jurisdictions, we can about talk justice and what something is worth until we’re blue in the face, unfortunately it’s a money game.Do you have the space to house criminals or not?”

Senator Cam Ward also commented on the then newly-released guidelines:

“Nobody in this process is soft on crime, we’re trying to be smarter about it. Our prisons are at 193 percent of capacity and we spend less than any other state in the country. We’re going to get sued in federal court and they are going to come in and impose a harsh penalty. The problem is, under the current system, we basically have people concerned more with politics than actual results. Sometimes they want to impose sentences that may not fit the crime.”

District Attorney Broussard and Senator Ward’s statements on the topic were in line with what policy experts did – and do – point to as good incarceration policies. 2014’s Alabama Sentencing Commission’s sentencing guidelines say that “…sentencing standards shall take into account and include statewide historically based sentence ranges, including all applicable statutory minimums and sentence enhancement provisions, including the Habitual Felony Offender Act, with adjustments made to reflect current sentencing policies.” The “current policies” referred to are those allowing for reconsideration of nonviolent offender sentences.

With the announcement of his SB84 for the upcoming session, however, it seems policy groups and many state politicians are now at very far odds with Senator Ward’s views, at least on this legislation.

Senate Bill 84 and a War of Ideas

Senate Bill 84, which would repeal the 2001 retroactivity amendment pushed by then Speaker-Pro Tem Demetrius Newton, has some in the justice advocacy community at arms, especially in light of statements by legislators like Ward that show they truly understand the question.

“I sound like broken record but [I] still believe our prison sys[tem] is [the] greatest threat to state budgets,” Senator Ward recently tweeted, “[Throwing] more money at [the prison] sys[tem] not [the] solution. Changing the system is. Keep[ing] violent folks locked up and more alt[ernative] sentencing for non-violent ones is.”

Many groups opposing Ward’s SB84 say the bill would prevent just that. In an APR exclusive, founder and executive director of Montgomery-based nonprofit the Equal Justice Initiative Bryan Stevenson discussed the issue of HB84.

“Alabama legislators have acknowledged and discussed the fact that our overcrowded prisons and runaway spending on unnecessary incarceration has to end,” Stevenson said. “This bill is a step in the wrong direction. We should be seeking ways to expand release opportunities for non-violent offenders, not passing laws to keep them in prison longer.”

As Senator Cam Ward correctly pointed out, Alabama’s correctional facilities are at nearly double their capacity, with over 33,000 inmates housed in accommodations made for under 20,000.

“We cannot seriously address the critical problems facing Alabama’s prisons and prison spending without courageous leadership,” the Harvard grad and NYU professor pointed out. “This proposal does not address the very serious problems that need to be confronted. It’s another unfortunate effort at being tough rather than smart on crime.”

Senator Cam Ward has pushed back, saying that he introduced the bill with bipartisan support last session, and is was voted out of the Judiciary committee unanimously, with bipartisan support. He also says that the Alabama Court of Appeals supports the legislation, and that it will save the courts money.

Representative Darrio Melton (D) has also joined in the debate. “When we talk about repeat, nonviolent offenders,” the Selma native told APR, “we should be looking at rehabilitation and address the root causes that lead to this activity. Senator Ward wants to reform Alabama prisons and reduce operating costs, but this law would cause more people to remain behind bars. Instead of locking people up, let’s look at the underlying factors, such as poverty-level wages, a broken educational system and damaged families and communities. Let’s work to fix the state to prevent crime and rehabilitate offenders.”

Senator Ward, a member of the Shelby County delegation, has also pointed out that the legislation would not apply to those cases already in litigation, or cases after the 2000 amendment. In addition, he says that it will involve no increase in prisoner population, and that it only currently involves 82 cases.

*******
Republican Senator Cam Ward has represented the 14th district since 2010, before which he represented it in the House of Representatives for multiple terms.

Democratic Chief Justice Drayton Nabers, author of Kirby v. State of Alabama recently accepted a position as the head of Samford University’s new ethics institute.

Representative Darrio Melton was elected to represent the 67th district in 2010. He has pre-filed legislation that would increase the minimum wage in Alabama.

Bryan Stevenson is the founder and director of Montgomery-based nonprofit Equal Justice Initiative, which represents indigent death row inmates. He is a Harvard and Yale University lecturer, and a law professor at New York University.

APR contacted all Democratic members of the Judiciary committee from last session. Only Representative England has responded, and he has not yet let us know his full position.

Economy

Federal prison officers in Alabama brace for second missed paycheck

Chip Brownlee

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When the federal government has shut down in the past few years, correctional officers at a federal women’s prison in West Alabama were optimistic. They knew it would be short.

They were even optimistic — as optimistic as you can be when you’re not getting paid for your work — when they faced their first shutdown in 2013 after Federal Correctional Institution Aliceville became operational earlier in that same year.

Until this shutdown, the 2013 lapse in federal funding was the longest they’d experienced. This one is different. At 28 days and counting, the current partial shutdown is the longest in American history.

“There’s no comparison,” said Terrence Windham, a correctional officer who has worked at the facility for nearly seven years. “With this shutdown, there is a whole lot less optimism that things are going to change anytime soon.”

Windham is right. That reality he and his colleagues are facing — the reality of not knowing when they’re going to get their next paycheck or whether they’ll be able to pay the mortgage, their rent or utility bills — shows no sign of changing anytime soon.

And they have an 18-month-old child to care for, too.

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Windham is among the 36,000 Federal Bureau of Prisons employees who are deemed “essential.” That means he has to work during the shutdown even though he won’t get paid until after the government reopens.

In total, an estimated 800,000 federal employees nationally, and 5,000 in Alabama, are facing a similar situation. They’re either working without pay or at home without pay.

I. “They want their money”

Negotiations between Congressional leadership and the president are stalled. They haven’t met since President Donald Trump walked out of a meeting earlier this month. Things are frozen.

Windham’s pay is frozen. So is his wife’s. She works at FCI Aliceville, too.

But the bills aren’t frozen.

Windham

“And so you kind of have to figure out, okay, what bill are you going to pay and what are you going to hold off on,” Windham said. Earlier this month, a credit card bill tried to charge one of their accounts. There was no money left.

“I had to kind of shuffle some things around to pay that bill, but if I don’t get paid by next month, I don’t know what I’m going to do,” Windham said.

Thankfully, the Windhams are from Aliceville. They have family and friends to fall back on, and their family owns a funeral home, so he has some extra money to help pay the bills.

Other officers aren’t so fortunate.

“Creditors and lenders don’t care that it’s a shutdown,” Windham said. “They want their money. It’s not as simple as a lot of people think it is.”

The prison recently hired a number of new staff, too. Because of the schedule they started on, some of them haven’t gotten a full paycheck in more than a month Their first checks were only partial checks because the shutdown started just after they started.

“And they’re new staff. They don’t have a nest egg,” Windham said. “You know — young folks trying to get started in life. So this is very difficult for them. And for the older staff, mortgage payments are an issue.”

Things are already hard at FCI Aliceville. But they’re going to get worse next Friday. That’ll be the day they miss their second paycheck. Paying one month of bills is possible. Few families have enough savings to last beyond that.

“This second check is going to be the real cutter,” Windham said. “It hurt a lot of people, this first one, but the next one is going to be horrendous.”

It’s not just missing pay. For some, it’s extra costs. Most correctional officers at the prison don’t live in Aliceville, a small town of fewer than 3,000 people situated about 25 miles east of the Mississippi state line.

Most live in Tuscaloosa or Columbus, Mississippi. Both cities are nearly an hour’s drive away. Before the shutdown, workers were able to take federally subsidized transportation to and from work. Now they’re having to pay out-of-pocket for gas.

“Now people are having to use gas and spend money that they normally wouldn’t have spent to get to work,” Windham said.

II. “It is still a prison”

Nationally, the average salary of a federal correctional officer ranges from $40,000 to $50,000 a year, and they work in a rare federal government position that includes the likelihood of being harmed or attacked on the job.

Even at a lower security women’s prison like FCI Aliceville, there is still the possibility of danger.

“There are still fights that are going on,” Windham said. “There are still drugs being smuggled in. It is still a prison just with an extra stressor. That’s what I’m worried about — people thinking about their home life at work and then putting themselves in a dangerous situation.”

Despite the difficulties facing the officers, they’re trying to push through it. Overall, Windham, who also serves as the local Association of Federal Government Employees union president, said morale is okay, considering the situation.

“They’re working, they’re having fun, making jokes about it, trying to make light of the situation,” he said. “They’re trying to keep their mind off of it. But when they’re at home, sitting alone or with their spouses, with their kids, they don’t know whether that next check is coming.”

Nationwide, The Washington Post has reported that the number of officers calling in sick has nearly doubled. In Aliceville, the union is encouraging workers to show up. Not showing up, they say, only affects those who do.

“We’re trying to encourage people to come to work, and they’re buying it, but it’s hard to buy something for such a long time. It’s painful to keep working and not get paid,” he said. Abandoning their job is not a message they want to send to politicians.

Nor is it a message they want to send to their inmates.

Some inmates work in prison. They get paid. Sometimes it’s as little as a quarter an hour, but they are still getting their checks, while the correctional officers aren’t.

“I’m not going to say all of them, but some of them here locally have made comments that they’re getting paid, and we are not — kind of jabbing at us,” he said. “So when you have to deal with not getting paid and the inmates are laughing at you and joking, it doesn’t bode well for the safety and the security of this institution.”

III. An outpouring

Aliceville is small. Less than 3,000 people. When the prison arrived in 2013, Pickens County’s population jumped by nearly 1,000 people, including new inmates and staff. The prison was a boon to the local economy.

As of now, that boon has temporarily slowed. Fewer people are buying food and groceries. Fewer people are shopping at local stores because they just don’t have disposable money.

Windham, in the little free time he has not at the prison, is also a city councilman in Aliceville, where his family has long resided. His grandfather started a local funeral home.

“From a city standpoint, now we’re not able to sustain our tax base that we’re used to because people aren’t spending,” Windham said. “People aren’t going out and spending money. That’s how cities survive. Once that gets negated, it starts hitting the city home.”

Folk have stepped in to help, though. Churches and local businesses have been helping furloughed and unpaid employees. The water board and gas board are waiving some fees. And Alabama Power is working on a case-by-case basis to help federal employees with their utility bills.

“It’s tremendous the outpouring that has been going on so far,” Windham said. “But if this thing lasts months or years, you know, people can’t go without getting paid. That hurts the economy locally as well.”

IV. Telegram to Washington

Trump has said he’s willing to let the shutdown last for months or even years over his dispute with Congressional Democrats — and some Republicans — who have refused to provide $5.7 billion for a border wall when it doesn’t include a broader immigration reform package.

Windham and his fellow correctional officers have a message for Washington.

“While they’re getting their six-figure salaries, and we’re not getting our five-figure salaries — low five-figure salaries — we need them to do their jobs,” Windham told APR.

The prison is in Rep. Terri Sewell’s 7th Congressional District. Windham said Sewell and her staff have been on the phone with correctional staff repeatedly since the shutdown begin. Next week, she plans to feed the correctional officers, Windham said.

Sewell, in a statement to APR, placed the blame on Republicans.

“I am working hard every day to reopen government while the Republicans sinfully and irresponsibly hold hostage the paychecks of our federal workers,” Sewell said. “From the moment Congress went into session, I have voted seven times to reopen our government. I am continuing to work with leadership on a real path forward, but we need a willing partner in the White House. The Senate Majority Leader must take up our House-passed bills and end the shutdown now.”

The majority of the bills the House has passed were authored and passed by Republicans, namely Republican Alabama Sen. Richard Shelby, in the Senate. But after Trump said he would refuse to sign them, Senate Majority Mitch McConnell halted the process.

“We don’t care about the wall,” Windham said. “If you want it, get it, and if you don’t want it, fine. But don’t use us a political pawn.”

Shelby started his chairmanship of the Senate Appropriations Committee with a lot of success. The Senate passed more timely budgets than it has since 1997. But the standoff over the border wall halted his progress.

“I am disappointed that this standoff has resulted in a prolonged partial government shutdown, which has hurt federal employees and their families throughout Alabama,” Shelby told APR. “I believe there is a way for us to work together to move toward serious negotiations involving the President and my colleagues on both sides of the aisle.  It is critical that we find a solution that will fund the remaining 25 percent of the government for the good of the American people, and it is my hope that we can accomplish this as soon as possible.”

But McConnell has said the Senate won’t vote until an agreement is reached with the president.

“We just them to vote on something,” Windham said. “Let the president sign or not sign. But to not do anything is not an option anymore. Because on Friday, if people don’t get their checks, they’re going to have to make some hard decisions”

 

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Governor

Lieutenant governor picks deputy chief of staff

Chip Brownlee

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The lieutenant governor has selected his deputy chief of staff.

Jess Skaggs, a former Alabama Department of Agriculture and Industries administrator, will be Lt. Gov. Will Ainsworth’s deputy chief of staff, his office said Thursday.

“As lieutenant governor, I plan for my office to be the most active and engaged in Alabama’s history, and Jess Skaggs has the experience, dedication, and energy necessary to help make that plan a reality,” Ainsworth said. “Jess has a deep desire to serve his fellow Alabamians and to make our state an even better place to live for all of its citizens. I’m happy to have him on my team as we work to provide Alabama with more jobs, better schools, and a higher standard of ethics among its elected officials.”

Skaggs previously served as the deputy commissioner for external affairs in the department.

He spearheaded economic development opportunities for the Department of Agriculture and Industries in that role. He also worked with the Alabama Legislature to promote the state’s agricultural industry and assisted the commissioner with public policy research.

Ainsworth was sworn in as lieutenant governor on Monday. He’ll begin presiding over the Senate when the Legislature returns for the 2019 session in March. Ainsworth said Monday that he plans to focus on economic development, education, job training and government ethics during his term.

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Aside from his experience in the ADAI, Skaggs has other experience in the Legislature that could come in handy for the lieutenant governor. Skaggs worked closely with two senators and five state representatives as the delegation director for the Baldwin County Legislative Office. In that role, he oversaw constituent services, drafted and researched legislation, and coordinated community service grants for the delegation members.

Skaggs worked on the bill that authorized improvements to Gulf State Park and the Lodge at Gulf State Park. That was at the behest of former State Sen. Tripp Pittman, for whom he worked as a legislative aide. Pittman who chaired the Senate Finance and Taxation Education Committee.

A graduate of Huntingdon College with a degree in political science and history, Skaggs has also worked on numerous political campaigns as a general consultant and fundraiser.

He and his wife, Charlanna, an attorney specializing in business law, have three daughters and one son.

 

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Corruption

Former Republican State Rep. Ed Henry pleads guilty

Brandon Moseley

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Former Alabama state Rep. Ed Henry, R-Hartselle, pleaded guilty Wednesday in federal court to one count of aiding the theft of government property as part of a much larger Medicare fraud and kickback scheme.

Prosecutors agreed to waive 17 counts in the indictment and 15 counts in a related indictment in exchange for the guilty plea.

Federal prosecutors said that Rep. Henry’s role in the scheme cost the government more than $150,000. Prosecutors report in court filings that Henry cooperated with their efforts against other defendants and will recommend that his sentence be on the low end of the sentencing range. The charge carries a 10-year maximum sentence. Former state Representative Henry has also agreed to pay fines and restitution in the case.

The Alabama Media Group reports that Huntsville physician, Dr. Nicole Scruggs also pleaded guilty to a charge in a related case last week. Two other doctors have been charged in the case, including Decatur physician Punuru Reddy, who is scheduled to go to trial on February 4.

Henry was a partner in a medical clinic with Dr. Gilberto Sanchez. According to prosecutors, the clinic did not charge patients the $32 copay that Medicare requires. By waiving the copay that encouraged patients to come there over other providers and is a violation of the contract that clinics agree to when they agree to take Medicare patients. The fraud was uncovered in a larger investigation of pill mills and Dr. Sanchez and associates practice of over prescribing opioids.

Henry was a very outspoken member of the legislature who criticized then Speaker of the House Mike Hubbard, R-Auburn, for his corruption. Henry also introduced articles of impeachment against then-Gov. Robert Bentley (R).

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Henry is the fifth members of the 2010-2014 House of Representatives who have been found guilty of crimes while in office. Two others, Randy Davis, R-Daphne, and Jack Williams, R-Vestavia, have been indicted and are awaiting trial.

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News

Ivey attends kick-off construction on Airbus A220 manufacturing facility in Mobile

Brandon Moseley

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Alabama Gov. Kay Ivey joined leaders of Airbus, top local officials and others at the Mobile Aeroplex at Brookley Wednesday for a groundbreaking ceremony to launch construction of the company’s new A220 aircraft manufacturing facility.

Airbus already manufactures the A320 family in Mobile. The new assembly line will satisfy the strong and growing U.S. demand for the A220 aircraft. The A220 is the newest offering in Airbus’ commercial aircraft product line, and create more than 400 full-time jobs in Mobile.

“This is a great day for Mobile and for Alabama,” Governor Ivey said. “Airbus’ growth plans will not only create new jobs for Alabamians but also strengthen the bonds that have developed between the global aerospace company and our state. Alabama has a long history in flight and, as this project shows, a bright future in the aviation industry.”

Secretary of the Alabama Department of Commerce Greg Canfield said that the A220 assembly line project represents an important milestone for the state’s robust and expanding aerospace sector.

“Airbus’ decision to launch production of A220 aircraft at a new assembly line in Mobile will act as a powerful catalyst for sustained growth in an industrial sector that is key to Alabama’s future,” Secretary Canfield said. “Airbus’ expanding presence in the Mobile aerospace cluster will spark significant job creation and spur additional aerospace investment in the region for many years.”

Airbus CEO Tom Enders led the celebration and welcomed attendees including: Airbus executives, other industry executives, Airbus manufacturing employees, as well as state, national, and local dignitaries and community leaders.

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Airbus manufactures the A320 family of aircraft in Mobile, as well as helicopters and satellites elsewhere in the U.S. It also operates an engineering center in Mobile, plus other facilities across the nation.

The Chairman and CEO of Airbus Americas, Jeff Knittel said that Airbus’ expansion in the United States reflects the company’s growing partnerships with customers, as well as with American supplier-partners, and the communities in which the company operates across the U.S.

“Our partnerships are growing again with the addition of an A220 manufacturing facility that will employ some 400 more employees at full rate,” Jeff Knittel said. “Together we’ve already put Mobile on the map in the world of global aviation, and together we are making a new mark for the future.”

Economic developer Nicole Jones told the Alabama Political Reporter, “Airbus’ latest expansion, the construction of a new A220 aircraft manufacturing facility in Mobile, demonstrates Alabama’s position as a global leader in the aviation and aerospace industry.”

The new A220 assembly line will facilitate assembly of A220-100 and A220-300 aircraft for U.S. customers.

“The A220 Family is the newest addition to the Airbus family of commercial aircraft, designed for consumers in the 100 to 150 seat market,” Nicole Jones added. “Crews will construct the A220 assembly line at the Mobile Aeroplex at Brookley, adjacent to the A320 production line already in operation. “

Aircraft production is planned to begin in third quarter of this year with the first delivery of an A220 assembled in Mobile scheduled for 2020. The new A220 production facilities will be complete by next year.

“Airbus has already announced significant news related to its current A320 facility in Mobile County,” Nicole Jones continued. “Within the past month, the company delivered its one hundredth (100th) made in Alabama plane to Frontier Airlines. Folks looking for employment should take note that Airbus plans to add new jobs this month (January 2019) and approximately 600 jobs over the next 18 months.”

Alabama is rapidly becoming a major global for aerospace research and aircraft production.

“Business analysts predict that by 2023, Alabama will be number 4 or 5 in the world for the production of commercial aircraft,” Nicole Jones concluded. “This is a testament to teamwork and strategic partnerships between the public and private sector as well as the quality, dedicated, and skilled workforce Alabamians provide and companies need. Alabama has a history of leadership in aerospace and aviation, and Airbus is an international pioneer in the industry. We are thankful to the team at Airbus for their continued commitment to our state, nation, and the world.”

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Senator Ward’s SB84 on Habitual Offenders Act Catches Serious Criticism

by Lee Hedgepeth Read Time: 9 min
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