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Voyager 2 has left the heliosphere

Brandon Moseley

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The Voyagers have gone where no man-made spacecraft have gone before. For the second time in history, a human-made object has reached the space between the stars. NASA’s Voyager 2 probe follows Voyager 1 and has exited the heliosphere, the protective bubble of particles and magnetic fields created by the Sun.

Members of NASA’s Voyager team discussed the findings at a news conference on at Monday at the meeting of the American Geophysical Union (AGU) in Washington. Only Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 have ever journeyed this far from Earth.

Comparing data from different instruments aboard the trailblazing spacecraft, mission scientists determined the probe crossed the outer edge of the heliosphere on Nov. 5. This boundary, called the heliopause, is where the tenuous, hot solar wind meets the cold, dense interstellar medium. Voyager 1 crossed this boundary in 2012, but Voyager 2 carries a working instrument that will provide first-of-its-kind observations of the nature of this gateway into interstellar space.

Voyager 2 now is slightly more than 11 billion miles from Earth. Mission operators still can communicate with Voyager 2 as it enters this new phase of its journey, but the information, which is moving at the speed of light, takes about 16.5 hours to travel from the spacecraft to Earth. By comparison, light traveling from the Sun takes about eight minutes to reach Earth.

The most compelling evidence of Voyager 2’s exit from the heliosphere came from its onboard Plasma Science Experiment (PLS), an instrument that stopped working on Voyager 1 in 1980, long before that probe crossed the heliopause. Until recently, the space surrounding Voyager 2 was filled predominantly with plasma flowing out from our Sun. This outflow, called the solar wind, creates a bubble, the heliosphere, that envelopes the planets in our solar system. The PLS uses the electrical current of the plasma to detect the speed, density, temperature, pressure and flux of the solar wind. The PLS aboard Voyager 2 observed a steep decline in the speed of the solar wind particles on Nov. 5. Since that date, the plasma instrument has observed no solar wind flow in the environment around Voyager 2, which makes mission scientists confident the probe has left the heliosphere.

“Working on Voyager makes me feel like an explorer, because everything we’re seeing is new,” said John Richardson, principal investigator for the PLS instrument and a principal research scientist at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge. “Even though Voyager 1 crossed the heliopause in 2012, it did so at a different place and a different time, and without the PLS data. So we’re still seeing things that no one has seen before.”

In addition to the plasma data, Voyager’s science team members have seen evidence from three other onboard instruments: the cosmic ray subsystem, the low energy charged particle instrument and the magnetometer. The readings from those instruments are consistent with the conclusion that Voyager 2 has crossed the heliopause. Voyager’s team members are eager to continue to study the data from these other onboard instruments to get a clearer picture of the environment through which Voyager 2 is traveling.

“There is still a lot to learn about the region of interstellar space immediately beyond the heliopause,” said Ed Stone, Voyager project scientist based at Caltech in Pasadena, California.

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Together, the two Voyagers provide a detailed glimpse of how our heliosphere interacts with the constant interstellar wind flowing from beyond. Their observations complement data from NASA’s Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX), a mission that is remotely sensing that boundary. NASA also is preparing the upcoming Interstellar Mapping and Acceleration Probe (IMAP), due to launch in 2024) to capitalize on the Voyagers’ observations.

“Voyager has a very special place for us in our heliophysics fleet,” said Nicola Fox, director of the Heliophysics Division at NASA Headquarters. “Our studies start at the Sun and extend out to everything the solar wind touches. To have the Voyagers sending back information about the edge of the Sun’s influence gives us an unprecedented glimpse of truly uncharted territory.”

While the probes have left the heliosphere, Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 have not yet left the solar system, and won’t be leaving anytime soon. The boundary of the solar system is considered to be beyond the outer edge of the Oort Cloud, a collection of small objects that are still under the influence of the Sun’s gravity. The width of the Oort Cloud is not known precisely, but it is estimated to begin at about 1,000 astronomical units (AU) from the Sun and to extend to about 100,000 AU. One AU is the distance from the Sun to Earth. It will take about 300 years for Voyager 2 to reach the inner edge of the Oort Cloud and possibly 30,000 years to fly beyond it.
The Voyager probes are powered using heat from the decay of radioactive material, contained in a device called a radioisotope thermal generator (RTG). The power output of the RTGs diminishes by about four watts per year, which means that various parts of the Voyagers, including the cameras on both spacecraft, have been turned off over time to manage power.

“I think we’re all happy and relieved that the Voyager probes have both operated long enough to make it past this milestone,” said Suzanne Dodd, Voyager project manager at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in Pasadena, California. “This is what we’ve all been waiting for. Now we’re looking forward to what we’ll be able to learn from having both probes outside the heliopause.”

Voyager 2 was launched in 1977, 16 days before Voyager 1, and both have traveled well beyond their original destinations. The spacecraft were built to last five years and conduct close-up studies of Jupiter and Saturn. However, as the mission continued, additional flybys of the two outermost giant planets, Uranus and Neptune, proved possible. As the spacecraft flew across the solar system, remote-control reprogramming was used to endow the Voyagers with greater capabilities than they possessed when they left Earth. Their two-planet mission became a four-planet mission. Their five-year lifespans have stretched to 41 years, making Voyager 2 NASA’s longest running mission.

The Voyager story has impacted not only generations of current and future scientists and engineers, but also Earth’s culture, including film, art and music. Each spacecraft carries a Golden Record of Earth sounds, pictures and messages. Since the spacecraft could last billions of years, these circular time capsules could one day be the only traces of human civilization. A Voyager probe even appeared in Star Trek the Motion Picture, as the villain.

Voyager’s mission controllers communicate with the probes using NASA’s Deep Space Network (DSN), a global system for communicating with interplanetary spacecraft. The DSN consists of three clusters of antennas in Goldstone, California; Madrid, Spain; and Canberra, Australia.

The Voyager Interstellar Mission is a part of NASA’s Heliophysics System Observatory, sponsored by the Heliophysics Division of NASA’s Science Mission Directorate in Washington. JPL built and operates the twin Voyager spacecraft. NASA’s DSN, managed by JPL, is an international network of antennas that supports interplanetary spacecraft missions and radio and radar astronomy observations for the exploration of the solar system and the universe. The network also supports selected Earth-orbiting missions. The Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, Australia’s national science agency, operates both the Canberra Deep Space Communication Complex, part of the DSN, and the Parkes Observatory, which NASA has been using to downlink data from Voyager 2 since Nov. 8.

NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville employs thousands of Alabamians.

Brandon Moseley is a senior reporter with eight and a half years at Alabama Political Reporter. You can email him at [email protected] or follow him on Facebook. Brandon is a native of Moody, Alabama, a graduate of Auburn University, and a seventh generation Alabamian.

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Sen. Jones: Millions for Alabama priorities in annual defense bill

Eddie Burkhalter

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Sen. Doug Jones, D-Alabama, on Thursday highlighted how the latest National Defense Authorization Act could positively impact Alabama service members, state universities and businesses that work with the U.S. military.  

The fiscal year 2021 National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA), approved on Thursday by the Senate Armed Services Committee, now goes before the full Senate for a vote. 

“Alabama is an undisputed leader in securing our nation and this legislation recognizes that by providing significant funding for our troops, including a three-percent pay raise, and continued funding for our defense assets,” Jones, a member of the Senate Armed Services Committee, said in a statement. “Each year, this bill is an example of the kind of work we can do when we come together on a bipartisan basis around a common goal – protecting our country and supporting our service members and their families. This bill provides the support and funding needed for Alabama to continue to lead in this effort, and I look forward to its passage in the full Senate soon.”

Jone’s office in a press release noted that the latest NDAA provides a three-percent pay raise for service members for a second year in a row, and addresses several quality of life issues for military children and spouses. 

Key provisions in the FY 2021 NDAA for Alabama’s servicemembers and their families, military installations, and contractors and research institutions are listed below.

 Strengthening Alabama’s Defense Infrastructure and Industry

  • $24 million for advanced electrical generation and storage facilities at Fort Rucker in Dale County;
  • $23 million for next generation fighter aircraft (F-35) facilities at Maxwell Air Force Base;
  • $18 million to construct a small arms parts demilitarization facility at the Anniston Army Depot;
  • $10 million to help steel manufacturers meet future defense needs, protecting current and future employment of thousands in Birmingham;
  • $5 million to improve efficiency and readiness at the Army’s Aviation and Missile Center in Huntsville; and,
  • $2 million for the Aerospace Education Research and Innovation Center (AERIC) at Tuskegee University, and a $5 million increase overall for Historically Black Colleges and Universities.

Funding for Alabama’s Contribution to the National Defense Strategy

  • $349.7 million for an additional THAAD ballistic missile defense battery, key parts made in Troy;
  • $35 million for Long Range Anti-Ship Missiles (LRASM), made in Troy;
  • $10 million for research into lightweight power sources for Navy ships. The University of Alabama conducts leading edge research and development of silicon carbide power sources;
  • $7.3 million for continued research and development of advanced plastics technology. The Mobile area is home to a company that is pioneering thermoplastic tailorable composite manufacturing;
  • $5 million for research into advanced repair and modification processes. The University of Alabama is currently working with the DoD to develop these technologies;
  • $5 million to complete development of new satellite technology. Huntsville is home to companies that are leaders in this field and are well-positioned to compete for these funds;
  • $5 million to accelerate the Army helicopter modernization program. Bell Helicopter, in Ozark, is participating in this program;
  • $3 million to develop a hypersonic missile testing facility. Huntsville is home to a number of companies that contribute to the Defense Department’s hypersonics research and development;
  • $10.5 million to build a high energy laser system lab to help with the Army’s weapons modernization programs. The Army’s high energy laser program is headquartered at Redstone and works with a number of Huntsville companies; and,
  • $3 million for hybrid additive manufacturing research and development to help with the Army’s weapons modernization programs. The additive manufacturing industry is robust and growing in Alabama, with research and development ongoing in Birmingham. 

Support to Improve the Safety and Health of Military Housing and Bases

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  • Requires the Secretary of Defense to implement within 90 days all applicable security and emergency response recommendations to protect U.S. military installations, which follows a call by Senator Jones to increase base security after Enterprise, Alabama native Joshua Kaleb Watson was killed during a terrorist attack at Naval Air Station Pensacola last year; and,
  • Requires the Secretary of Defense to ensure that each installation conducts or develops a plan to conduct regular live emergency response training with first responders.

Funding for Coronavirus Response

  • Increases funding to support the Defense Department’s coronavirus vaccine research and to integrate with other vaccine research programs; and,
  • Authorizes hazard pay for troops deployed in response to the coronavirus.

Expanding Support and Opportunity for Minority Service Members

  • Authorizes pilot programs to reduce barriers to participation in satellite ROTC programs and to provide flight training scholarships at HBCUs;
  • Takes steps toward identifying and eliminating barriers to minority participation in elite units in the armed forces; and,
  • Supports continuing and expanding the Air Force JROTC pilot training scholarship program to increase diversity in the pilot ranks and address the pilot shortage.

 Support for Military Spouses and Children

  • $50 million for Impact Aid to schools that serve military children;
  • $20 million for aid to military children with disabilities;
  • $15 million for Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) youth educational programs (STARBASE);
  • Authorizes a pilot program to expand eligibility for attendance at DoD schools for military dependent children living off-base;
  • $4 million to continue development of interstate agreements on licensed occupations for military spouse; and,
  • Increases reimbursement to military spouses for state licensure and certification costs resulting from relocations.
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Brooks is excited by America’s return to space

Brandon Moseley

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Congressman Mo Brooks (R-Huntsville) praised the launch of American astronauts on American rockets from American soil—the first such launch in a decade. The USA finally has put astronauts in space. SpaceX accomplished the feat on Saturday.

Congressman Brooks said that the Tennessee Valley is excited by the launch.

“The Tennessee Valley is the birthplace of America’s space program and Huntsville is proudly nicknamed the ‘Rocket City,’” Rep. Brooks said. “I well remember the earth-shaking, dish-rattling Apollo rocket engine tests on Redstone Arsenal just a few miles from our home. I also proudly remember 1969, when our community’s rocket engine work came to fruition with landing and walking on the Moon.”

“I again feel great pride in America’s space accomplishments,” Brooks said in a statement. “There hasn’t been an all-American launch in a decade.”

Brooks said that the successful launch “signals a resurgence of America’s human space flight preeminence.”

“NASA and SpaceX have teamed to launch American astronauts Bob Behnken and Doug Hurley on SpaceX’s Falcon 9 rocket, the same rocket that successfully flew uncrewed in March 2019,” Brooks explained. “Bob and Doug will embark on a 19-hour journey to the International Space Station where they will spend between one and four months onboard.”

“The Tennessee Valley stands ready to again do our part in making this launch and future launches successful,” Brooks concluded.

This is the first time in history, that NASA astronauts have launched from American soil in a commercially built and operated American crew spacecraft on its way to the International Space Station.

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“Today a new era in human spaceflight begins as we once again launched American astronauts on American rockets from American soil on their way to the International Space Station, our national lab orbiting Earth,” said NASA Administrator Jim Bridenstine. “I thank and congratulate Bob Behnken, Doug Hurley, and the SpaceX and NASA teams for this significant achievement for the United States. The launch of this commercial space system designed for humans is a phenomenal demonstration of American excellence and is an important step on our path to expand human exploration to the Moon and Mars.”

Known as NASA’s SpaceX Demo-2, the mission is an end-to-end test flight to validate the SpaceX crew transportation system, including launch, in-orbit, docking and landing operations. This is SpaceX’s second spaceflight test of its Crew Dragon and its first test with astronauts aboard, which will pave the way for its certification for regular crew flights to the station as part of NASA’s Commercial Crew Program.

“This is a dream come true for me and everyone at SpaceX,” said Elon Musk, chief engineer at SpaceX. “It is the culmination of an incredible amount of work by the SpaceX team, by NASA and by a number of other partners in the process of making this happen. You can look at this as the results of a hundred thousand people roughly when you add up all the suppliers and everyone working incredibly hard to make this day happen.”

President Donald J. Trump (R) and Vice President Mike Pence (R) were both on hand to watch the launch of SpaceX Falcon 9 launch on Saturday at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida.

“It’s incredible — the technology, the power. I’m so proud of the people at NASA — all the people that worked together, public and private,” Pres. Trump said. “When you see a sight like that, it’s incredible. The power of that machine and the danger — no matter how you figure. When you — when you hear that sound, and you hear all of that — the roar — you can imagine how dangerous it is. When you feel the shake — and we’re very far away, but you feel the shake over here — it’s pretty — pretty amazing. A beautiful sight. A beautiful ship, too. That’s really a beauty. Considered a beauty. I would say it’s a beauty.”

“I speak to him all the time. Great guy,” Trump said of Musk. “He’s one of our great brains. We like great brains. And Elon has done a fantastic job. But that was a beautiful sight to see, and I hope you all enjoyed it. And we’re going to be saying a few words inside, so I’ll see you inside, okay? Thank you very much. A very great honor to have you here.”

“You know, four years ago, this place as essentially shut down,” Trump said. “The space program was over. The shuttle program was dead. One of the Secret Service men said they were here with the past administration — I won’t tell you who — and they were here to shut down the facility. And now we’re the leader in the world again. And this is just the beginning. They’re going to Mars. They’re going to the Moon, but they’re going to the Moon in order to go to Mars. It’s a platform.”

“It’s difficult to put into words how proud I am of the people who got us here today,” said Kathy Lueders, NASA’s Commercial Crew Program manager. “When I think about all of the challenges overcome – from design and testing, to paper reviews, to working from home during a pandemic and balancing family demands with this critical mission – I am simply amazed at what the NASA and SpaceX teams have accomplished together. This is just the beginning; I will be watching with great anticipation as Bob and Doug get ready to dock to the space station tomorrow, and through every phase of this historic mission.”

SpaceX controlled the launch of the Falcon 9 rocket from Kennedy’s Launch Control Center Firing Room 4. SpaceX has leased the former space shuttle control room as its primary launch control center.\

NASA teams are monitoring space station operations throughout the flight from Mission Control Center at the agency’s Johnson Space Center in Houston.

Learn more about NASA’s Commercial Crew program at:

https://www.nasa.gov/commercialcrew

The United Launch Alliance is also working on a platform to launch men into space with the Dreamliner and NASA itself is doing testing on the Space Launch System which will launch astronauts into space in the Orion module that is also undergoing final testing.

Congressman Mo Brooks represents Alabama’s Fifth Congressional District.

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Jones disappointed that Austal lost frigate contract to Fincantieri

Brandon Moseley

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Thursday, Austal USA’s bid for the U.S. Navy’s $795 million contract to build the next-generation guided missile Frigate was rejected in favor of a design offered by Fincantieri Marinette Marine, a Wisconsin-based shipbuilder. U.S. Senator Doug Jones, D-Alabama, did not hide his disappointment with the Navy’s decision. Austal builds the the Independence class littoral combat ship (LCS), expeditionary fast transports, and other navy vessels in Mobile.

“I am disappointed that the Navy chose not to award the contract for the next-generation guided-missile frigate to Austal USA,” Jones said. “Austal is the only U.S. shipbuilder providing ships to the Navy on time and on budget right now. It is my understanding that this award is for the first ten of a potential 20-ship buy, and I am confident that if Austal chooses to compete for future awards, the Navy will find Austal to be the best choice.

“Just last December, Austal USA celebrated 20 years of shipbuilding in Mobile,” Jones said. “Austal’s extraordinary success is testament to its unmatched local workforce and its ability to build highly capable, cost-effective ships safely and on schedule. I especially appreciate Austal’s commitment to the health and safety of its employees and the community, as well as to our national security, through the workforce protection measures it has implemented and its economic support donations in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. Our shipbuilders are critical to our national defense, and I am grateful for their dedication during this difficult time.”

Fincantieri will build an adapted variant of the Italian FREMM (European multi-purpose frigate) in Wisconsin at its Marinette shipyard. The contract also includes plans for up to nine more ships from the firm — a deal that’s ultimately worth more than $5.5 billion.

Fincantieri’s European built FREMM is already in service with both the Italian and French Navies.

Austal was the builder of the Independence class littoral combat ships as well as other designs including fast transports. When the LCS’s were first built, Austal produced the U.S.S. Independence, an all aluminum trimaran design, and Lockheed produced the U.S.S. Freedom. The two competing LCS designs were evaluated by the Navy and the initial decision was to complete the order as Freedom class LCS’s. Austal’s allies in the Navy and Congress rallied behind the innovative new ships and ultimate the Navy purchased both vessels in quantity, rejecting an Obama Administration plan to build just one class of littoral combat ship. There is still some hope that ten of the new guided missile frigates will be of the Fincantieri design; while ten could be of a second design that Austal could still compete for. General Dynamics and the Bath Ironworks also submitted frigate designs.

“The frigate will be an agile multi-mission warship,” said Navy assistant secretary James Geurts. “They’ll operate in all environments and will be more lethal, survivable and have increased self-defense and local-area defense capability and capacity over previous small-surface combatants.”

The new frigates are designed to defend against near-peer adversaries, such as China and Russia. The new frigate is designed to fight on both the high seas and near the shore, with more capabilities than littoral combat ships but at a much smaller price tag than cruisers and destroyers.

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Speed was a factor in the decision. Because the Fincantieri design is a derivative of an existing class of warship, the European FREMM, the Navy believes that Fincantieri can deliver the new ships quicker than Austal or the other ship builders. The contract award came three months ahead of schedule, in order to get the new frigate program moving surprising many in the political world who did not expect a decision before late summer. The new frigate will have 300 tons more steel than the FREMM to improve its survivability.

“All this was done with an intense focus on cost, acquisition and technical rigor so that we got the best value for our warfighter and the taxpayer,” Geurts said.

Geurts expects delivery of the first ship in 2026, with the class reaching full operational capability by 2032.

The new ships will use a modified version of the SPY-6 radar Raytheon is developing to keep the Navy’s aging destroyers in the fight, along with Lockheed Martin’s Aegis Combat System.

Doug Jones is a member of the Senate Armed Services Committee.

Original reporting by Military.com and the Defense News contributed to this report.

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Austal loses frigate contract to Fincantieri

Brandon Moseley

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Thursday, the U.S. Navy awarded a $795 million contract to a Wisconsin-based shipbuilder to begin production on the first of the service’s next-generation small-surface combatants. Fincantieri Marinette Marine won the contract to design and build the first of the new guided-missile frigates. Fincantieri won the contract over a design offered by Mobile-based Austal USA.

Fincantieri will build an adapted variant of the Italian FREMM (European multi-purpose frigate) in Wisconsin at its Marinette shipyard. The contract also includes plans for up to nine more ships from the firm — a deal that’s ultimately worth more than $5.5 billion.

Fincantieri’s FREMM is already in service with both the Italian and French Navies.

When we began this journey nearly two years ago it was with the belief that there was a place for new ideas, new platforms and new partners in an already talented U.S. shipbuilding industry,” said Fincantieri Marine Group CEO Dario Deste. “Today’s announcement validates that thinking.”

The Navy plans to build 20 ships as part of the future frigate program.

“Congratulations to the Navy on this important decision,” added Deste. “The men and women of Fincantieri Marinette Marine and our partner suppliers throughout the United States are ready to get to work.”

In addition to Austal, Fincantierri also beat out designs offered by General Dynamics Bath Iron Works and Huntington Ingalls Industries. Lockheed withdrew its entry into the competition, an upgraded version of its’ Freedom class LCS from the competition last May.

The award was a disappointment to Congressman Bradley Byrne (R-Montrose),

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“The men and women who work at the Austal shipyard in Mobile are the finest in the country,” Rep. Byrne said. “I disagree with the Navy’s decision, and I look forward to thoroughly examining the Navy’s decision making in this process in the coming days. At the same time, I’m committed to working with Austal, the Navy, and the Trump Administration to ensure we don’t destroy our critical shipbuilding industrial base, especially at a time when the threat environment clearly demands more small surface ships.”

Austal was the builder of the Independence class littoral combat ships as well as other designs including fast transports.

Fincantieri is one of the world’s largest shipbuilding groups and has built more than 7,000 vessels in over 230 years of maritime history. It is a leader in cruise ship design and construction and a reference player in all high-tech shipbuilding industry’s sectors, from naval to offshore vessels, from high-complexity special vessels and ferries to mega-yachts.

“The frigate will be an agile multi-mission warship,” said Navy assistant secretary James Geurts. “They’ll operate in all environments and will be more lethal, survivable and have increased self-defense and local-area defense capability and capacity over previous small-surface combatants.”

The new frigate is an important part of the Navy’s plans to modernize for more distributed operations, positioning the U.S. to defend against near-peer adversaries, such as China and Russia. The new frigate is designed to fight on both the high seas and near the shore, with more capabilities than littoral combat ships but a smaller price tag than cruisers and destroyers.

The Navy awarded its contract to Fincantieri three months ahead of schedule, in order to get the new frigate program moving. Since the design is based on an existing warship that is already in service Fincantieri that will speed up the process.

“All this was done with an intense focus on cost, acquisition and technical rigor so that we got the best value for our warfighter and the taxpayer,” Geurts said. “It’s the best I’ve seen in the Navy thus far at integrating all of our teams together and it’s a model we are building on for future programs.”

Geurts expects delivery of the first ship in 2026, with the class reaching full operational capability by 2032.

The new ships will use a modified version of the SPY-6 radar Raytheon is developing to keep the Navy’s aging destroyers in the fight, along with Lockheed Martin’s Aegis Combat System.

Vice Adm. Jim Kilby, deputy chief of naval operations for warfare requirements and capabilities, said the goal is for the frigate to be able to fight in “all spectrums of potential conflict.” That includes being able to carry manned helicopters and unmanned aircraft, he said.

“Though it’s classified as a small-surface combatant, it really falls nicely in between our small-surface combatants and our large-surface combatants,” Kilby said. “And I see it doing multiple things. This is going to be a real workhorse for the United States Navy, supporting distributed maritime operations in the future.”

The new frigate will have about 300 tons more steel than the FREMM design because the U.S. Nay has higher standards for ship survivability than the Italian Navy does.

(Original reporting by Military.com and the Defense News contributed to this report.)

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